Kiwifruit have a very short history of cultivation,Domestication of Actinidia Species 澳门太阳娱乐的驯化发展历史

Domestication of Actinidia Species
Kiwifruit have a very short history of cultivation. In China, they used to be simply collected from the wild (Ferguson & Huang, 2007). There were attempts to grow both A. chinensis and A. deliciosa outside China during the first years of the twentieth century, but only plants of A. deliciosa seem to have established successfully (Ferguson & Bollard, 1990). Seed and plants collected in China were sent to Europe, the United States, and New Zealand. In Europe and the United States, A. deliciosa did not develop into a commercial crop but remained merely a horticultural novelty grown by enthusiastic gardeners. A common problem was getting plants of both sexes, and there were only very occasional reports of successful fruiting. New Zealand was more fortunate in that both male and female plants must have been raised from the original introduction of seed in 1904 as fruit were being produced by 1910 (Ferguson & Bollard, 1990). A commercial orchard, the first in the world, was established by the 1930s and was soon followed by more widespread if still limited plantings. Commercial exports of fruit of A. deliciosa started in 1953. The success in the markets created such a demand that from 1970 onward, there was a rapid expansion of plantings, primarily to supply fruit for export, and by 1976, exports exceeded local consumption. Fruit of A. deliciosa have been available to consumers of most developed countries for nearly half a century.

redkiwifruit

▲redkiwifruit▲

澳门太阳娱乐的驯化发展历史

澳门太阳娱乐的栽培历史很短。在中国,它们过去只是从野外采集的(Ferguson&Huang,2007)。在二十世纪的头几年,有人试图在中国境外官网进入中华白藜和美味白藜,但只有美味白藜芦的植物似乎已经成功建立(Ferguson&Bollard,1990)。在中国收集的种子和植物被送往欧洲、美国和新西兰。在欧洲和美国,美味水芹并没有发展成为商业作物,但仍然只是由热心的园丁官网进入的一种园艺新品种。一个常见的问题是获得两性植物,并且只有非常偶然的成功结果报告。新西兰更幸运的是,雄性和雌性植物都是从1904年最初引入的种子中培育出来的,因为1910年开始生产水果(Ferguson&Bollard,1990)。20世纪30年代建立了世界上第一个商业果园,不久之后官网进入面积更大,但仍然有限。deliciosa水果的商业出口始于1953年。市场的成功创造了这样一种需求,从1970年起,官网进入面积迅速扩大,主要是为了供应出口水果,到1976年,出口超过了当地消费。近半个世纪以来,大多数发达国家的消费者都能买到美味阿糖的果实。

redkiwifruit

▲redkiwifruit▲

The success of the New Zealand industry encouraged growers in other countries to start growing A. deliciosa using the cultivars and techniques that had proved successful. For many years, the plants grown in most of these other countries came from New Zealand and were therefore descended from the importation of seed in 1904 (Ferguson, 2004). The initial process of domestication of A. deliciosa thus started more than 100 years ago outside China, and the first commercial orchards were outside China. Fruit were being sold in international markets before cultivation of A. deliciosa or other Actinidia species had been even attempted in China.

kiwifruit

▲kiwifruit▲

新西兰产业的成功鼓励其他国家的官网进入者开始使用已证明成功的品种和技术官网进入美味阿。多年来,大多数其他国家官网进入的植物来自新西兰,因此是1904年进口种子的后代(Ferguson,2004)。因此,美味葡萄的驯化过程始于100多年前的中国境外,最早的商业果园位于中国境外。在中国官网进入美味澳门太阳娱乐或其他澳门太阳娱乐品种之前,水果就已经在国际市场上销售。

Golden kiwifruit

▲Golden kiwifruit▲

Experimental cultivation of A. chinensis began in Beijing more recently, about 50 years ago, and orchards of selections of this species were being established in China around 1980, well before commercial cultivation started in other countries (Ferguson & Huang, 2007). Fruit of A. chinensis have become readily available in the international marketplace only during the last 5–10 years.

redkiwifruit

▲redkiwifruit▲

近50年前,北京开始了中华白屈菜的实验栽培,1980年左右,中国开始建立该物种的果园,远远早于其他国家开始商业栽培(Ferguson&Huang,2007)。直到最近5-10年,中国蒿的果实才在国际市场上随处可见。

redkiwifruit

▲redkiwifruit▲

Until recently, consumers expected kiwifruit to be hairy on the outside and green inside. The arrival in the marketplace of yellow-fleshed kiwifruit with a different flavor, the comparatively hairless fruit of A. chinensis, therefore marked a fundamental change. Even so, green-fleshed kiwifruit of A. deliciosa still account for 90–95% of the international trade in kiwifruit. It might have been predicted that the yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (currently all A. chinensis) would become relatively more common but this seems unlikely, at least in the short term. The yellow-fleshed genotypes of A. chinensis cultivated in Italy, New Zealand, and some other countries seem particularly susceptible to bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

golden kiwi tree

▲golden kiwi tree

直到最近,消费者还认为澳门太阳娱乐外表多毛,里面是绿色的。因此,具有不同风味的黄肉澳门太阳娱乐,即中国澳门太阳娱乐中相对无毛的水果,进入市场,标志着一个根本性的变化。即便如此,美味澳门太阳娱乐的绿色果肉仍然占澳门太阳娱乐国际贸易的90%-95%。据预测,黄肉澳门太阳娱乐(目前全是中国澳门太阳娱乐)将变得相对更常见,但这似乎不太可能,至少在短期内是这样。在意大利、新西兰和其他一些国家官网进入的黄肉中华按蚊基因型似乎对由丁香假单胞菌pv引起的细菌溃疡特别敏感。

澳门太阳娱乐的驯化发展历史

Kiwi sapling

▲Kiwi sapling▲

golden kiwi plants

▲golden kiwi plants

澳门太阳娱乐果

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发布日期:2022年07月31日  所属分类:kiwifruit